The UMI Group for Equal Opportunities was founded in late 2012 under the initiative of the President of UMI. Its goals are to develop different issues related to the presence and the role of women in Mathematics, with specific analysis and actions.
The theme “gender&science” has been long investigated at international level like ”Gender and Science” in the programs of the European Community.
The most striking feature of the problem is the lack of women in scientific research, particularly in senior positions and in decision-making roles. This is particularly true in mathematics, where there is a large number of female students in the degree programs, but a small percentage of women who choose to continue in research, which become extremely low to higher levels of career.
The problem is complex and requires various actions at different levels, for example in educational guidance or in organization and selection modalities. Data and studies on the subject, links to other organizations, national and international, related to women in science, and the actions that will be implemented, will be collected in these pages.
Cinzia Cerroni (coordinator), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science – University of Palermo
Anna Maria Cherubini, Department of Mathematics and Physics – University of Salento – Lecce
Patrizia Colella, Liceo Palmieri – Lecce, “Associazione Donne e Scienza”
Adriana Garroni, Department of Mathematics – University of Rome La Sapienza
Barbara Nelli, Department of Engineering and Computer Science and Mathematics – University of L’Aquila
Elizabetta Strickland, INdAM Vice-President, Department of Mathematics – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”
Susanna Terracini, Department of Mathematics – University of Turin, “European Women in Mathematics”
Sofia Tirabassi, Mathematics Department – University of Utah
Who we were, until August 2015: Livia Giacardi (coordinator), Cinzia Cerroni, Anna Maria Cherubini, Patrizia Colella, Elizabeth Strickland, Susanna Terracini, Sofia Tirabassi
The gift of Claire Voisin for mathematics
Claire Voisin has become the first woman elected to the Collège de France in the oldest Department of Mathematics in the world. At her assignment a Conference was held, where also three Italian mathematicians were invited to speak. They were Enrico Arbarello, Kieran O’Grady and Giulia Saccà, the only woman and the youngest speaker among twelve. Inter alia, Giulia already distinguished herself in the past being awarded with the Enriques Prize by UMI. This year Claire Voisin was also awarded with the Gold Medal of CNRS, the French highest scientific distinction. You can discover more of this foreign member of the Istituto Lombardo and of the Accademia dei Lincei reading the dialogue by Barbara Fantechi and Gianluca Piacenza.
Board on “Gender Issues” (XX Congress UMI, Siena 09/07/2015)
- Prof. Alessandra Celletti, University of Rome Tor Vergata
One out of six makes it ….
- Prof. Cinzia Cerroni, University of Palermo
The presence of Faculty women in Italian universities
- Professor Anna Maria Cherubini, University of Salento
Do we dare disturb the universe?
- Prof. Elizabeth Strickland, University of Rome Tor Vergata
European Organisations for women mathematicians
- Prof. Susanna Terracini, University of Turin
Gender Issues: Women and diagrams of Excellence
Margherita Lelli Chiesa was accepted to Heidelberg Laureate Forum 2015
Numbers for women. Women and Mathematics
An exhibition organized by The Garden of Archimedes, Florence 6-27 March 2015, Palazzo Panciatichi, Via Cavour 2. The panels of the exhibition.
Fields Medal to Maryam Mirzakhani
During the twenty-seventh International Congress of Mathematicians held in Seoul in South Korea (13 to 21 August 2014), the president of the International Mathematical Union, Ingrid Daubechies, first woman to hold this office, announced the winners:
Artur Avila, Manjul Bhargava, Martin Hairer and the first woman to win this award, the Iranian Maryam Mirzakhani: http://www.icm2014.org/en/awards/prizes/f4
Conferences and workshops 2013-2015
- University of Bonn, 5-7 October 2015, Young Women in Algebraic Geometry, http://www.math.uni-bonn.de/veranstaltung/YWiAG15/
- Cortona, 31 August – 4 September 2015: INdAM Meeting of European Women in Mathematics: the 17th EWM General Meeting: Cortona. Information: http://www.europeanwomeninmaths.org/activities/conference/17th-ewm-general-meeting-cortona-2015
- Prague, 4-6 June 2015: International conference “Gendering Science”: Women and Men Producing Knowledge. Information: http://www.eshs.org/content/2121
- Stockholm, Mittag-Leffler Institute, 23-27 June 2014: 6th European Women in Mathematics Summer School. The project is supported by the European mathematical Society and the European Women in Mathematics Committee. Information available at: http://www.euro-math-soc.eu/event/sun-22-jun-14-1900/6th-european-women-mathematics-summer-school
- Luminy, 14-18 October 2013: Women in Numbers workshop. Information available at http://www.math.ucsd.ed/~alina/luminy/ On previous editions see: http://womeninnumbertheory.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&id=1&Itemid=2
- Bonn, 2-6 September 2013: The 16th General Meeting of European Women in Mathematics. Information available at: http://europeanwomeninmaths.org/activities/conference/16th-general-meeting-ewm
- Rome 17-19 July 2013: Mediterranean Youth Mathematical Championship (MYMC). It is an initiative to promote the interest of young people towards mathematics and enhance the friendly relations between peoples of the Mediterranean, giving particular importance to equality between men and women. Information available at: http://olimpiadi.dm.unibo.it/2013/06/04/mediterranean-youth-mathematical-championship-mymc/
- Bonn 7-9 June 2013: Workshop on: Categorification in Topology. The workshop is part of the series “Young Women in Topology”. Information available at: http: //www.math.uni-bonn.de/people/grk1150/YWT2013.html
- Trieste, 27 May – 1 June 2013: V Women In Mathematics Summer School. One of the main purposes of EWM Summer School is to stimulate the initiative of young women in the field of higher mathematics and also to encourage them to take on organizational responsibilities. So the EWM has solicited proposals for mini-courses by women mathematicians at the beginning of their career. The proponents of selected projects have been included among the Course Directors. The School will consist of short courses that will focus on four themes of the current research in mathematics chosen in the following areas: dynamical systems, partial differential equations and numerical analysis. It will also give voice to discussions on gender issues. Participants and speakers will of both genders. See the final report in the attachments.
- Investigation on the distribution for each university of men/women in the various grades of the academic career in mathematics, from graduating to full professors; the distribution of women/men in the various areas of mathematical research; the composition of academic senates and boards of directors:
- (as of 31.12.2013)
– Mathematical and Computer Sciences, based on the Ministry website http://statistica.miur.it/scripts/personalediruolo/vdocenti1.asp, edited by Cynthia Cerroni
- Survey on excellence through the study of the mechanisms of selection at the Olympics in mathematics through questionnaires to teachers and students.
In order to do that, the following questionnaires were distributed to teachers and students:- Questionnaire for Teachers
– Questionnaire for secondary school degree StudentsThe first one was distributed to teachers during the conference CIIM 2013 (Salerno, 17-18-19 October 2013).
65 responses were collected. Data analysis, by Patrizia Collella, improves the questionnaires themselves for an investigation on a larger scale
Questionnaire on cultural and family background and careers
This data analysis was prepared by Maria Teresa Turning (University of Turin)
- Conferences, seminars, conferences organized by the Group
C. Silvia Roero, “Matematica e cultura scientifica al femminile nel Settecento piemontese e lombardo: Clelia Grillo Borromeo, Maria Gaetana Agnesi e Diodata Saluzzo Roero”
Women scientists: Presentation Susanna Terracini
Sandra Linguerri, “Maestri e allieve: il caso di Vito Volterra”
Erika Luciano, “Ebree la cui religione si confonde con il culto dell’Italia: il caso delle insegnanti torinesi (1848-1938)”
Report of the last Gender Summit, just concluded in Brussels (l7 July 2014):
The site links to other interesting documents on gender issues.
Document on gender issues in HORIZON 2020
ANVUR Table – ANVUR Final Report of 30 June 2013:
In Table 2.13 the distributions of the subjects evaluated in the various categories of membership are reported for each area, highlighting also the matter of gender. It is interesting to notice that the percentage of women in the three main categories of universities and research institutions, overall modest, is significantly greater among scientists than among ordinary and associate professors. It is also interesting to note that the percentages are still lower in institutions than in universities. The gender distribution, taking into account the fact that graduate female students are more than graduate male students, shows how a research career is still difficult to access for the female component.
Situation of gender in Italian mathematics updated to 2013 by Lucia Maddalena (AMASES Vice-President) and Elizabeth Strickland (INdAM Vice-President)
The glass ceiling for female mathematicians in Italy
She figures 2012
- Ratio of men to women in a typical academic career 2002-2010
- Presence of women in various academic degrees, 2010
- Presence of women in grade A in key areas of science, 2010
- Presence of women in grade A, 2002-2010
- Ratio of men to women in grade A
The entire report is available in section “attachments”.
By Roman Frattini and Paolo Rossi: Report on women in Italian University, 2012, in Menodizero, Rivista dell’Università in Movimento
- Total number of teachers, divided by gender 1996-2012
- Total number of teachers in the university divided by role and by gender
- Ratio of gender and average probability for switching between researchers and grade II professors, left, and between grade II professors and grade I professors, to the right, 2000-2011
- Percentage of women professors in the various macro-1996-2012
- Average values of the probability of transition between researchers and grade II professors, left, and between grade II professors and grade I professors, right
- Percentage of women in various roles in the year 2009 in the different macro
The entire report is available in section “attachments”.
From “I laureati e il lavoro”, Survey 2011 on graduates in 2007, Statistics ISTAT, 8 June 2012
- Graduates in 2007 with Bachelor’s degree, who have not subsequently obtained a master’s degree and who are employed in 2011, by type of work, sex and group of courses
- Graduates in 2007 with master’s degree and who are employed in 2011, by type of work, sex and group of courses
- Average net monthly earnings of graduates in 2007 who carried out a continuous work full-time in 2011, by type of degree, sex and groups of courses
The entire report is available in section “attachments”.
Where to find more information:
– Database MIUR-Office of Statistics: http://statistica.miur.it/normal.aspx?link=datiuniv
– She figures 2009 Statistics and indicators on gender equality in science: http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/she_figures_2009_en.pdf
– The Global Gender Gap Report, 2012: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012.pdf
– Helen Shen, Inequality quantified: Mind the gender gap, Nature 495, 2013 http://www.nature.com/news/inequality-quantified-mind-the-gender-gap-1.12550
– Interdisciplinar Center for Research and Studies on Women: http://www.cirsde.unito.it/
The Centre was established in the spring of 1991 at the suggestion of a group of professors and researchers of the University of Turin, as a framework for research initiatives, education and cultural encounter among female scholars and researchers interested in gender issues. Its official journal is “Quaderni di Donna & Ricerca”
– Interdepartmental Centre ABCD-Milan: http://www.abcd.unimib.it/
It is a Interdepartmental Centre of the University Milano-Bicocca created with the intention “to contribute to the enhancement and dissemination of studies on gender, with a focus on analysis about the ways in which gender differences, inequalities and relations are expressed through societies and cultures. ”
– Association Femmes et Mathematiques: http://www.femmes-et-maths.fr/
Founded in 1987, the association has the following main objectives: to encourage women to study mathematics and science in general; to act in order to achieve equality in recruitment in universities; to sensitize the scientific community towards gender issues; to facilitate the matching of women mathematicians.
– “Donne e Scienza”: http://www.donnescienza.it/
This is the site of the “Donne e Scienza” association, whose main aim is “to promote women’s entry and careers in science and to modify institutions on the basis of a critical analysis of contemporary science.” There also appears a rich bibliography of reference.
– European Women in Mathematics: http://europeanwomeninmaths.org/
The EWM is a women’s association that aims at encouraging other women to start and continue their studies in Mathematics; to help those who wish to pursue a career in research, creating places and opportunities to meet; to foster international communication between men and women in the mathematical community and to cooperate with other groups and organizations – in Europe and in the world – that have similar objectives. In the website there are also a number of statistics on women, their insertion in universities and research institutes, the firts university choices, the greater difficulties encountered in mathematics the difference compared to their colleagues, etc..
– International Organisation of Women and Mathematics Education (IOWME): http://extra.shu.ac.uk/iowme/
This organization was established in 1976. During the third International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME-3), a conference on “Women and Mathematics” was organized. It is an international network of people and groups that seek to achieve equality in education and who are interested in the links between gender and teaching and learning of mathematics. See also: http://www.icmihistory.unito.it/iowme.php.
– “STReGA” Project: http://strega.unile.it/il_progetto.htm
The “STReGA” Project by the University of Salento and by the “Donne e Scienza” association, has been funded by the Ministry of Labour under the plan of affirmative action (art. 44 DL 198/2006, formerly Art. 2 Law 125/1991) and has been held at the Department of Mathematics from 2008 to February 2011. In the course of the project there have been actions aimed at women involved in scientific research and orientation activities for female students of high school to studies and scientific papers. In the pages of the project you can find links to the individual projects, with documentation.
– Women in mathematics: http://www.lms.ac.uk/women-mathematics
Site of the London Mathematical Society. See in particular the “Good Practice Scheme” (http://lms.ac.uk/women/good-practice-scheme) developed by Women in Mathematics Committee and its report “Advancing women in mathematics: good practice in UK university departments” (http://www.blitzadv.co.uk/LMS-BTL-17Report.pdf)
A) articles, books and documents
- Various Authors, in “Special Section on Women in Science”, Nature, 495, 2013, pp. 5-134. (Collection of various articles about women in scientific research, with data)
- Sabina Passamonti, “L’università senza donne”, La voce, March 8, 2013
- Patrizia Colella 2012, “Donne e scienza. Con la meritocrazia servono quote azzurre”, Sapere, pp. 64-65.
- Roman Frattini, Paolo Rossi 2012, “Report sulle donne nell’Università italiana”, in Menodizero, Rivista dell’Università in Movimento
- Manuel Bagues and Natalia Zinovyeva 2011, “Donne che giudicano le donne”. In cattedra
- Christine Wenneras and Agnes Wold, “Nepotism and sexism in peer review”, Nature, 387 (1997)Books
- Rossella Palomba, “Sognando parità”, Ponte alle Grazie, Firenze, 2013
- Anna Maria Cherubini, Patrizia Colella, Cristina Mangia 2001 “Empowerment e orientamento di genere nella scienza. Dalla teoria alle buone pratiche”, Milano, Franco Angeli
- ISTAT, “Donne all’Università”, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2001.
- Rossella Palomba (eds) 2000, “Figlie di Minerva. Primo rapporto sulle carriere femminili negli enti pubblici di ricerca italiani”, Milano, Franco Angeli. 2000
- Virginia Valian, “Why so slow? The advancement of women”, MIT Press, 1998
Evelyn Fox Keller, “Sul Genere e la Scienza, Garzanti”, Milano,1987Documenti e report
- 2010: Stocktaking 10 years of “Women in science 1999-2009”
- 2009: ISTAT “I numeri dell’università”
- 2009: Rapporto PRAGES, “Linee guida per i programmi di promozione dell’eguaglianza di genere nella scienza”
- 2008: Mapping the maze: getting more women to the top in research
- Report of the “Conseil Scientifique de l’Institut National des Sciences mathématiques et de leurs Interactions” Rapport_prospective_CS_INSMI_sept 2014. See in particular paragraph VII. “Questions de Parité”B) Articles and books concerning women of science in history
- Paola Govoni 2013, “The Power of Weak Competitors: Women Scholars”, “Popular Science”, and the Building of a Scientific Community in Italy, 1860s-1930, in ‘Science in Context’, 26 (3), pp. 505-436
- Miriam Focaccia (a cura di) 2012, “Dizionario biografico delle scienziate italiane (secoli XVIII-XX) Vol. 1 Architette, chimiche, fisiche, dottoresse”, Bologna, Pendragon 2012
- Sandra Linguerri (a cura di) 2012, “Dizionario biografico delle scienziate italiane (secoli XVIII-XX) Vol. 2 Matematiche, astronome, naturaliste”, Bologna, Pendragon
- Valeria Babini, Raffaella Simili (a cura di) 2012, “More than pupils. Italian Women in Science”, Firenze, Olschki
- Elisabetta Strickland 2011, Scienziate d’Italia, Roma, Donzelli
- Raffaella Simili, Emanuela Reale 2011, “Nella città di Ipazia. Donne di scienza, in Storia d’Italia. Annali 26. Scienze e cultura dell’Italia unita”, a cura di Francesco Cassata, Claudio Pogliano, Torino, Giulio Einaudi Editore, pp. 893-919.
- Raffaella Simili 2011, “Le donne nella comunità scientifica, prima e dopo l’Unità, in Atti del Convegno Scienziati italiani e Unità d’Italia”: Roma, 14-17 novembre 2011, Accademia nazionale delle scienze detta dei XL, Roma, Aracne, pp. 29-59.
- Sandra Linguerri 2010, “Un matematico un po’ speciale. Vito Volterra e le sue allieve”, Bologna, Pendragon
- Raffaella Simili 2010, “Sotto falso nome. Scienziate italiane ebree (1938-1945)”, Bologna, Pendragon
- Sara Sesti e Liliana Moro 2010, “Scienziate nel tempo. 70 biografie” LUD, Milano
- Erika Luciano, C. Silvia Roero (a cura di) 2008, “Numeri, atomi e alambicchi. Donne e scienza in Piemonte dal 1840 al 1960, Parte I, Centro Studi e Documentazione Pensiero Femminile”, Torino
- Laura Toti Rigatelli 2007, Sophie Germain. “Una matematica dimenticata”, Milano Archinto
- Gabriele Lolli 2000, “La crisalide e la farfalla. Donne e matematica”, Torino, Bollati Boringhieri
- Marilyn Ogilvie, Joy Harvey (eds.) 2000, “Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science”, New York, Routledge
- G. Fenaroli, F. Furinghetti, A, Garibaldi, A.M. Somaglia 1990, “Women and mathematical research in Italy during th period 1887-1946”. In L. Burton, “Gender and Mathematics. An international perspective”, London, Cassels, pp. 144-155.
– “Scienza a due voci”. Italian women in science from the eighteenth to the twentieth century: http://scienzaa2voci.unibo.it/
The site provides the general public a biographical dictionary of “Italian scientists” that allows you to learn more about the role played by Italian women in the development and diffusion of science, from the eighteenth century to the contemporary age (women born before 1925 have been inserted only recently). The women who participated in the scientific enterprise were usually depicted as extraordinary phenomena, or muses of great scientists, or skilled workers alongside distinguished male professionals. This biographical dictionary offers a more authentic view on their contribution thanks to a painstaking, thorough and passionate research, and discover some almost unknown or forgotten faces and voices
– Biographies of Women Mathematicians: http://www.agnesscott.edu/LRiddle/women/chronol.htm
The site contains biographies, accompanied by photography and literature, of the main women mathematicians from the sixth century BC to the twentieth century.